plethodon cinereus habitat
Proportions of red-backed and lead-backed morphs vary predicably in many areas of the United States, but this variation is not correlated with any obvious environmental factor (Petranka, 1998). Wyman (1988b) estimated that eastern red-backed salamanders consume 1.5 million prey items/ha/yr in New York. Highton (2003) documents recent widespread declines in most species of this complex. A wide variety of animals and one plant will prey upon eastern red-backed salamanders, with ring-necked snakes (Diadophis punctatus) and short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) likely being the most common predators. The redback salamander, Plethodon cinereus, is one of the most abundant vertebrates in eastern North American forests, with densities often exceeding 1 per sq. No information is available, but eggs are susceptible to fungal infections (Pfingsten, 1989b). Territories appear to function primarily as feeding areas, but may also play a role in mating success (Jaeger et al., 1982; Mathis, 1991). , Plethodon cinereus, like many plethodon species, exhibit homing behavior, with homing of females to their nests, as well as non-attending females and males to a home range. Eastern red-backed salamanders have among the highest mean rates of dehydration and rehydration (4 mg/cm2/hr) of all plethodontids (Grover, 2000). Spermatogenesis occurs from October–December in New York (Hood, 1934; Bishop, 1941b; Feder and Pough, 1975) and in late March in Michigan (Werner, 1969). , Males and females of P. cinereus typically establish separate feeding and/or mating territories underneath rocks and logs. Monitoring protocols are being refined, and monitoring of some populations has begun (Carfioli et al., 2000). Kleeberger and Werner (1982) estimated home ranges in Michigan average 13 m2 for males and juveniles, 24 m2 for females. They have no aquatic larval stage. The other two similarly-shaped salamanders in Vermont are the Four-toed and the Northern Two-lined Salamanders. Eastern red-backed salamanders are largely nocturnal (Piersol, 1910; Cockran, 1911; Park et al., 1931; Heatwole, 1962). Mimicry has also been postulated as an anti-predator mechanism in the erythristic (all red) color morph of eastern red-backed salamanders, which are suspected of mimicking the red eft stage of eastern newts (Notophthalmus viridescens), a highly noxious species distasteful or poisonous to predators (Tilley et al., 1982). The eggs hatch in 6 to 8 weeks. F. Home Range Size. Hot, dry conditions are avoided, but true aestivation has not been recorded. When exposed, individuals may remain motionless to avoid detection, flee for protective cover, or assume a coiled position with the tail on top, presenting a dispensable body part to the predator (see below). 4. In Virginia, 95% of nests were attended by brooding females (Highton and Savage, 1961). Hatchlings are reported as 22 mm TL (Wisconsin; Vogt, 1981) and averaging 13.5 mm SVL (Ohio; Pfingsten, 1989b). Ohio males (n = 904) averaged 40.5 mm SVL, and females (n = 632) 41.2 mm (Pfingsten, 1989b). In Maryland, Cooper (1956) reported aquatic hibernation in 7.5–25 cm (3–10 in) of water. Plethodon cinereus ingår i släktet Plethodon och familjen lunglösa salamandrar. Seasonal Migrations. Soil moisture, soil pH, cover object availability, and light intensity all affect salamander distribution, with soil pH being the most influential factor (Wyman, 1988a,b; Frisbie and Wyman, 1992; Sugalski and Claussen, 1997; Grover, 1998). i. Females produce from four to 17 eggs in a year. Nagel (1977) reported growth rates in an eastern Tennessee population averaging 15 mm SVL during the first year and 8 mm in the second year, with growth surprisingly not slowing during the winter (females in this study reproduced annually, so growth rates may be lower in biennially reproducing populations). Both species have been documented to be highly territorial both in the wild and in captivity. Average clutch sizes are 6–9 relatively large eggs (range = 1–14). Females usually remain coiled with the eggs for about 60 d until hatching, and this behavior is thought to provide some protection for the eggs from predators and dehydration (Petranka, 1998), as well as accrue energetic and growth costs to the brooding female (Ng and Wilbur, 1995). The grape-like clusters are usually suspended from the cavity roof by a short stalk. Corresponding Author. m. Given its numbers and sensitivity to habitat conditions, it may be useful as a bioindicator of environmental degradation. Conifer-dominated forests often have litter temperatures of 39 ˚C (Heatwole, 1962), exceeding the maximum temperature tolerances for plethodontids (32.3–34.6 ˚C; Spotila, 1972), whereas litter in deciduous forests typically stays cooler (28 ˚C maximum; Heatwole, 1962). Hybridization between eastern red-backed and Shenandoah salamanders is also reported, with concern that genetic swamping may be contributing to the decline of the Endangered Shenandoah salamanders (Thurow, 1999). Frisbie, Malcolm Pratt, and Richard L. Wyman. The distri-butions of the five P. cinereus group mountaintop endemics are all The Eastern Red-backed Salamander is one of three salamanders in Vermont with very similar body sizes and shapes. Author links open overlay panel Breanna L. Riedel a Kevin R. Russell a W. Mark Ford b Katherine P. O’Neill c Harry W. Godwin c. Show more. A Plethodon cinereus group has been recognized by Grobman (1944) and Highton and Larson (1979). Eastern Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus cinereus [now coextensive with Plethodon cinereus]: Bishop, 1943, Handb. , The skin of red-backed salamanders was found to contain Lysobacter gummosus, an epibiotic bacterium that produces the chemical 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and inhibits the growth of certain pathogenic fungi. We reared juveniles of P. cinereus in an enclosure alone, with a similarly-sized conspecific, with a similarly-sized P. glutinosus, and with a larger P. glutinosus. L. Age/Size at Reproductive Maturity. Plethodon cinereus has the widest geographical range of the genus, and possesses considerable morphological (e.g., plasticity in head shape) and behavioral variation, which may enable it to exploit a wide range of environmental conditions (Maerz et al. Note that in the embryo in the top right egg, the tail is visible against the background of … Eastern red-backed salamanders possess noxious skin secretions concentrated along the dorsum of the tail (Brodie et al., 1979; Petranka, 1998), which convey protection. Eggs of this species can be confused with those of large gastropods that also nest within rotting logs. There is an additional isolated colony in southern North Carolina (Conant and Collins 1998). The mean duration of immobility of disturbed salamanders is 39.4 s (range 1.0–169.5 s, n = 287; Dodd, 1989). [ 1 ] Inga underarter finns listade i Catalogue of Life . Title. It is one of 56 species in the genus Plethodon. J. Torpor (Hibernation). Available density estimates are given in Table 12. Preferred temperatures are higher in late summer and fall (maximum August mean selected temperature 21.0 ˚C) than in early summer (mean selected temperature 16.2 ˚C in early June), possibly facilitating surface activity in the summer, spermatogenesis during the fall mating season, and the selection of well-protected hibernation sites (Feder and Pough, 1975). An Plethodon cinereus in uska species han Caudata nga syahan ginhulagway ni Green hadton 1818. Forestry impacts demonstrated in other plethodontids probably apply to eastern red-backed salamanders as well, where five times more salamanders were found in Missouri old-growth stands (> 120 yr old) than in second-growth stands (70–80 yr old); 20 times more salamanders were found in second-growth stands than in regenerating forests (< 5 yr old; Herbeck and Larsen, 1999). Brooding females will aggressively defend their eggs from conspecifics (Bachmann, 1984), and sometimes males are found with brooding females (Friet, 1995). Breeding occurs in June and July. A large percentage of the population may be floaters (typically smaller animals that do not hold territories); up to 49% of the animals in a Virginia study may have been floaters (Mathis, 1991). Plethodon = fullness (may refer to yolk filled eggs) cinereus = ash colored. Not much is known about the dispersal of neonates, although neonates and juveniles are thought to be philopatric.The species largely consumes invertebrates and other detritus dwellers. Brooding females do not actively forage but will eat opportunistically (Ng and Wilbur, 1995). Institute for Tropical Ecosystem Studies, University of Puerto Rico, , 00936‐8377 San Juan, PR, USA. Series: CIHM/ICMH microfiche series ; no. Indeed, Waldick (1997) concluded that habitat modifications associated with standard forestry practices resulted in a decline of all forest amphibians in eastern North America, with terrestrial salamanders, such as eastern red-backed salamanders, being most susceptible. 1A). Habitat relationships of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in Appalachian agroforestry and grazing systems. Competition between eastern red-backed salamanders and other plethodontids is recognized (e.g., Adams, 2000). The last published embryological study of Plethodon was that of Dent (1942) who provided both a preliminary staging table and experimental evidence of thyroxine ac-tivity in the Eastern red-backed salamander Plethodon cinereus (Fig. The occurrence of eastern red-backed salamanders is also positively associated with forest patch area, suggesting that forest fragmentation may result in declines (Kolozsvary and Swihart, 1999). Similar to adults. The incubation period is about 6–8 wk (Burger, 1935; Davidson and Heatwole, 1960; Pfingsten, 1989b), with hatching usually taking place in August–September. None reported. Petranka (1998) gives home area (the defended territory) averages for males, females, and juveniles as 0.16–0.33 m2. Eastern red-backed salamanders are aggressive toward northern slimy salamanders (P. glutinosus), defending territories against them (Lancaster and Jaeger, 1995). The results of Generalized Linear Mixed Models comparing the habitat variables that best predict the presence sites of Plethodon cinereus and P. sherando . The Red-backed can usually be found in damp locations under leaf litter or in the coarse woody debris of mature deciduous or mixed hardwood forests. Field body temperatures range from 6.5–22.0 ˚C during the active season (Feder et al., 1982). Moisture requirements also influence microhabitat choice. Plethodon cinereus habitat, Amherst County, VA. Plethodon cinereus, leadback phase. Empirical evaluation of the hypothesis of food competition in salamanders of the genus Plethodon. Eastern red-backed salamanders have a limited ability to burrow, being effective only in soft substrates such as leaf litter or loose humus, and they prefer to use or enlarge existing retreats (Heatwole, 1960). The intensity of the defense varies depending on the quality of food resources contained within the territory (Gabor and Jaeger, 1999). Housing. Predators. Clutch size. "A review of colour phenotypes of the Eastern Red-backed Salamander, 10.1655/0018-0831(2007)63[450:AAAPAB]2.0.CO;2, "Lead-phase and red-stripe color morphs of red-backed salamanders, APPALACHIAN NATURE: An Entrée of Salamanders, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Red-backed_salamander&oldid=988186370, Fauna of the Great Lakes region (North America), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 November 2020, at 17:04. In New Hampshire, eastern red-backed salamanders predominate in salamander assemblages, comprising 93.5% of the biomass of six salamander species (Burton and Likens, 1975a). Juveniles often remain in the nest cavity with the mother for 1–3 wk after hatching before dispersing (Piersol, 1910; Burger, 1935; Test, 1955; Highton, 1959). There is no evidence that skin secretions from brooding females have antibiotic properties (however, see Vial and Preib, 1966; and Austin, 2000 [southern zigzag salamanders, P. ventralis]). It is also known as the redback salamander, eastern red-backed salamander, or the northern red-backed salamander to distinguish it from the southern red-backed salamander (Plethodon serratus). Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander) Movement. We conducted two experiments in microcosms to examine whether the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris acted as an ecosystem engineer by providing additional habitat (burrows) for Plethodon cinereus, a common woodland salamander. E. Adult Habitat. The red-backed salamander is a small terrestrial salamander, 5.7–10.0 cm (2.2–3.9 in) in total length (including tail), which usually lives in forested areas under rocks, logs, bark, and other debris. Conservation. As a result, P. cinereus may be well poised to undergo spatial shifts in range and abundance in response to climate change. Surface activity is reduced in mid summer (late June to August; Blanchard, 1928a; Test, 1955; Taub, 1961; Highton, 1972; Nagel, 1977; Maglia, 1996). O.  It is one of the most numerous salamanders throughout its range. i. Historical versus Current Distribution. Both temperature and photoperiod regulate the spermatogenic cycle (Werner, 1969). In Hoff's (1977) Massachusetts study of tree stump hibernacula, a decided preference for selecting the decayed root systems of white oak (Quercus alba) over other tree species was indicated. Eastern red-backed salamanders are also reported to eat their own cast skins and occasionally will cannibalize conspecific eggs and juveniles (Surface, 1913; Piersol, 1914; Burger, 1935; Heatwole and Test, 1961; Highton and Savage, 1961; Burton, 1976). Eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) have undergone extensive taxonomic revision. Salamanders: 232). Rita I. Cáceres‐Charneco.  The red-backed phase is not always red, but may actually be various other colors (e.g., yellow-backed, orange-backed, white-backed, or a rare erythristic morph in which the body is completely red). Eastern red-backed salamanders exhibit color variants that include red-backed and lead-backed morphs co-occurring in most populations (summarized in Petranka, 1998).  Sperm or spermatophores are not retained following the oviposition period. Females deposit eggs in moist natural cavities within leaf litter, soil burrows, or rotting logs (Test and Heatwole, 1962). The effects of soil pH on sodium balance in the red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus, and three other terrestrial salamanders. Sexual maturity is reached about 2 yr after hatching (Bausmann and Whitaker, 1987). Eastern red-backed salamanders occupy deciduous, mixed conifer-deciduous, and sometimes northern conifer forests, where they inhabit leaf litter and utilize retreats under stones, within soil cavities, and in rotting logs. The effects of soil pH on sodium balance in the red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus, and three other terrestrial salamanders. McAlpine (1997a) found no evidence of decline in New Brunswick, but suggests that clearcutting, conversions to conifer plantations, and shorter cutting cycles may have depleted populations. For example, two southern subspecies (P. c. serratus and P. c. polycentratus) have been combined into southern red-backed salamanders (P. serratus; Highton and Larson, 1979). Embryonic gills are lost just before or shortly after hatching. We also examined whether the behavioral changes of the non-burrowing, fossorial P. cinereus differed across age classes. K. Interspecific Associations/Exclusions. ii. Vernberg (1955) reported soil pH preferences of 6.0–6.8. P. Anti-Predator Mechanisms. Regular surface activity during prolonged warm spells in winter has been observed (Highton, 1972), and based on full stomachs in January in Indiana, there is some evidence that feeding continues through the winter (Caldwell, 1975), but declines from December–February (Petranka, 1998). The Red-backed Salamander is usually found under rocks, logs, fallen bark, or leaf litter. C. Direct Development. Fraser, Douglas F. 1976. Accessed 14 Dec 2020. 16. Ovipositing typically occurs in late spring and early summer. Eastern red-backed salamanders are replaced by the more drought resistant southern ravine salamanders (P. richmondi) on steep slopes in Ohio (Pfingsten, 1989b). (2000) provide evidence through behavioral experiments for social monogamy. Shrews ate only 40% of red-backed salamanders offered in lab trials, which was attributed to distasteful glandular secretions (Brodie et al., 1979; see also Hecker et al., 2003). They are constrained by their physiology to certain abiotic factors within their habitat, including soil moisture, temperature, leaf litter type, and cover objects. This phenomenon may have implications for eastern red-backed salamander distribution as global warming progresses, because increased physiological stress is likely in warm summer periods (Ovaska, 1997). In this study we compare microhabitat data for a broadly distributed salamander species, Plethodon cinereus, and two microendemic species P. sherando and P. hubrichti. With the advent of freezing weather, individuals move into underground retreats, beneath stones, into ant mounds, or under and within rotting logs and stumps, where they usually remain until snowmelt (Cockran, 1911; Grizzell, 1949; Vernberg, 1953; Cooper, 1956; Sayler, 1966; Highton, 1972; Caldwell and Jones, 1973; Hoff, 1977; Lotter, 1978; Buhlmann et al., 1988). ... have been es- timated to be 24.34 m2 (Kleeberger and Werner 1982, op. Eastern red-backed salamanders release alarm pheromones from skin glands when attacked, which, unlike territorial pheromones, are short lived (about 2 min; Graves and Quinn, 2000; see also Hecker et al., 2003). Possible competitive interactions between eastern red-backed salamanders and valley and ridge salamanders (P. hoffmani; Fraser, 1976b), and between eastern red-backed salamanders and Wehrle's salamanders (P. wehrlei; Pauley, 1978a,b,c), have been suggested but not conclusively demonstrated. Title: Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander ) Movement. Terrestrial . , As in many Plethodon species, female red-backed salamanders have the ability to store sperm as spermatophore, and have been evidenced in doing so up to eight months prior to the oviposition period in June and July. Pokagon State Park in Indiana is one such place. Mid summer movements occur in response to rising temperature and falling humidity, resulting in salamanders moving to cooler, moister environments (i.e., deeper into soils and from hilltops to depressions in the forest floor; Heatwole, 1962). Digestive efficiencies of 83.57–90.49% and salamander tissue energy content values of 26.51 and 25.07 J/mg ash free dry weight were calculated by Crump (1979). ii. Related Titles. The egg-laying habits of Plethodon cinereus . (1993) estimates that 14 million salamanders are lost annually in western North Carolina as a direct result of forestry practices (but see Ash, 1988, 1997; Ash and Bruce, 1994). Fungal infections ( Pfingsten, 1989b ) avoid temperature extremes and desiccating environments ( Heatwole 1960. Four-Toed and the Northern Two-lined salamanders ngan familia nga Plethodontidae 1818 ) eastern salamander... Taxonomic information System [ Internet ] 2012 6.5–22.0 ˚C during the active season ( Feder Pough! Also forage in bogs ( Hughes et al., 2000 ) the spermatogenic cycle Werner. Nga syahan ginhulagway ni Green hadton 1818 harmful ; their drying, acidifying, females! Reported soil pH on sodium balance in the family Plethodontidae with pheromones and fecal matter which! 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